The semantics and expression of apprehensional modality
Scott AnderBois, Maksymilian Dąbkowski
July 2023

Apprehensionality refers to the semantic domain of negative prospective epistemic modality and the formal expressions used to encode it (Vuillermet, 2018). In this article, we break down the maximal apprehensional situation into five components: (I) future reference, (II) possibility, (III) negative evaluation, (IV) avertive intent, and (V) a preferred action. In doing so, we propose a framework for comparing synchronic and diachronic aspects of the semantics and expression of apprehensional modality across languages. We discuss formal accounts of three apprehensional morphemes—Francez's (2023) account of Biblical Hebrew pen, Dąbkowski and AnderBois's (2023a) of A'ingae -sa'ne, and Phillips's (2021) of Australian Kriol bambai,—relate their formalisms to the apprehensional situation schema, and evaluate their predictions. We summarize previous findings on the grammaticalization pathways towards and among apprehensional morphemes. We find that apprehensionals grammaticalize from a wide range of sources, including components I–IV of the apprehensional schema. Among the apprehensional functions themselves, both subordination and insubordination are commonly encountered.
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Reference: lingbuzz/007428
(please use that when you cite this article)
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keywords: dabkowski, apprehensionality, apprehensional, marker, negative, negation, expletive, prospective, epistemic, modality, modal, apprehensive, proper, maximal, schema, situation, future, futurity, reference, possible, possibility, evaluation, evaluative, speaker-oriented, speaker-orientation, avert, avertive, aversion, in-case, in case, precaution, precautioning, clause, matrix, subordinate, subordination, insubordinate, insubordination, timitive, fear, evade, evitative, case, adposition, postposition, complement, complementizer, grammaticalization, pathway, synchrony, synchronic, diachronic, diachrony, history, historical, a'ingae, cofán, cofan, kofane, kofan, kofán, cofane, biblical, hebrew, australian, kriol, pen, bambai, sa'ne, intent, prefer, preferred, preference, action, event, comparison, comparative, typology, typological, survey, formal, formalism, morpheme, expression, domain, cross-linguistic, semantics, morphology, syntax
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