Clauses can be modifiers, or arguments: Evidence from alternations in factivity and answer-orientedness in Turkish and Japanese
Deniz Özyıldız, Wataru Uegaki
June 2024

Turkish and Japanese attitude predicates combine with two main kinds of embedded clauses: Nominalizations, and clauses introduced by the morphemes diye (Turkish) and to (Japanese). It has been previously been observed that the choice of the embedded clause conditions the availability of a factive inference, for declaratives under certain predicates (Özyıldız 2017; Kusumoto 2017). We describe the syntactic and semantic properties of interrogative nominalizations and diye/to-clauses. We show that the interrogative nominalizations give rise to familiar answer-oriented inferences with responsive predicates, but that interrogative diye/to-clauses must remain question-oriented. In particular, they give rise to the entailment that the attitude holder linguistically produce the question that they introduce. We propose a compositional fragment where attitude predicates take nominalizations as arguments, which they may impose semantic restrictions on, and where diye/to-clauses modify and enrich attitude meanings with a linguistic production inference. We end with a discussion of whether this proposal is viable uniformly for all instances of diye/to-clauses.
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Reference: lingbuzz/008187
(please use that when you cite this article)
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keywords: clausal embedding, question embedding, diye, to, factivity alternations, answer/question-orientedness, turkish, japanese, semantics, syntax
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